Chapter 2. Binary and Number Representation

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In the computer world " b inary dig it " is often shortened to the word " bit ". So, there are only two ways we can have a binary digit "0" and "1"or "On" and "Off" And without the leading 0s we have the first 16 binary numbers:. Because we take all the previous possible values and match them with a "0" and a "1" like above. Or to put it another way, it could show a number up to 1,,, note: There is an old Indian legend about a King who was challenged to a game of chess by a visiting Sage.

The King asked "what is the prize if you win? The Sage said he would simply like some grains of rice: The King was surprised by this humble request. On the first square: By the 30th square you can see it is already a lot of rice! A billion grains of rice is about 25 tonnes 1, grains is about 25g Notice that the Total of any square is 1 less than the Grains on the next square Example: So the total of all squares is a formula: So, the power of binary doubling is nothing to be taken lightly billion tonnes is not light!

By the way, in the legend the Sage reveals himself to be Lord Krishna and tells the King that he doesn't have to pay the debt at once, but can pay him over time, just serve rice to pilgrims every day until the debt is paid off. Lastly, let us look at the special relationship between Binary and Hexadecimal. There are 16 Hexadecimal digits, and we already know that 4 binary digits have 16 possible values. Well, this is exactly how they relate to each other:.

So, when people use computers which prefer binary numbersit is a lot easier to use the single hexadecimal digit rather than 4 binary digits. For example, the binary number "" is "9B4" in hexadecimal. I know which I would prefer to write! Hide Ads About Ads. So, to fill all 64 squares in a chess board would need:

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In most computer systems, a byte is a unit of data that is eight binary digits long. A byte is the unit most computers use to represent a character such as a letter, number or typographic symbol. Each byte can hold a string of bits that need to be used in a larger unit for application purposes. For example, the stream of bits that constitute a visual image for a program that displays images or the string of bits that constitutes the machine code of a computer program.

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In some computer systems, four bytes constitute a word , a unit that a computer processor can be designed to handle efficiently as it reads and processes each instruction. Depending on the capabilities, some computer processors can handle two-byte or single-byte instructions. Language scripts can sometimes require two bytes to represent a character. These are called double-byte character sets. A bit is represented by a lowercase b. While a byte can hold a letter or symbol, a bit is the smallest unit of storage, storing just one binary digit.

The standard number of bits in a byte is eight, but that number can vary from system to system, depending on the hardware. Initially, there could be one to six bits in a byte because the equipment at the time used 6-bit pieces of information. Another unit of data representing eight bits is an octet. Unlike a byte, an octet always consists of eight bits, no matter the architecture. Octets, as a measurement, can be used to avoid possible ambiguity associated with bytes, particularly with legacy systems, but the terms are often used synonymously.

While bytes are measured in bit multiples, computer storage is typically measured in byte multiples. In many computer architectures, a byte is the smallest addressable unit of memory. For example, an megabyte MB hard drive holds a nominal million bytes of data. Due to massive increases in storage capacity over time, there are now eight additional units of measurement following the byte.

The eight different types of bytes currently used in computer architectures range from kilobytes 1, bytes to yottabytes 1, zettabytes. Byte multiples can be measured using two systems: A base-2, or binary, system is commonly expressed as a rounded off decimal number. One megabyte 1 million bytes is actually made up of 1,, bytes by the base-2 definition.

A base system states that bytes for computer storage should be calculated as powers of In that system, a MB would actually be 1 million decimal bytes. This system is now most common among manufacturers and consumers.

While the difference between the base-2 and base systems was once fairly insignificant, as capacity has increased, the discrepancy has widened considerably. The future of flash storage: Is NVMe right for your enterprise? Persistent storage readied for containerized applications. Hyper-converged infrastructure vendors offer range of storage options.

By submitting you agree to receive email from TechTarget and its partners. If you reside outside of the United States, you consent to having your personal data transferred to and processed in the United States. Security, protection from hackers and ransomware, disaster preparedness and disaster recovery are all means to the goal of Rubrik takes another step toward cloud data management with Polaris GPS, a SaaS app that brings together secondary data stored in Igneous is seeking to take hold of a market that's 'up for grabs.

The data backup and recovery technologies of the future will have not only a cloud focus, but a multi-cloud focus. Hyper-converged infrastructures are similar to public cloud platforms in the way they use virtualization of resources. If you are considering an open source HCI implementation, this quiz can help you further refine your knowledge and better prepare Home Data storage management Computing fundamentals byte.

This was last updated in January NooBaa update focuses on multi-cloud data management Digital transformation planning bumps into data management issues Commvault GO: Ten ways to protect intellectual property and trade secrets A long hot summer for the enterprise storage market The copy data management market is starting to go mainstream Copy data management vendors expand breadth of offerings Load More View All Evaluate.

Ten ways to protect intellectual property and trade secrets Explosion in unstructured data storage drives modernization What role does Smart Paging play in Dynamic Memory allocation?

Will erasure codes rule? Load More View All Problem solve. E-Zine The future of flash storage: E-Zine Persistent storage readied for containerized applications E-Zine Hyper-converged infrastructure vendors offer range of storage options. Add My Comment Register. Login Forgot your password? Submit your e-mail address below. We'll send you an email containing your password. Your password has been sent to: Please create a username to comment.

Look to both security and disaster recovery Want IT resiliency? Look to both security and disaster recovery Security, protection from hackers and ransomware, disaster preparedness and disaster recovery are all means to the goal of Data protection market transforming Igneous is seeking to take hold of a market that's 'up for grabs.

What data backup technologies may look like in The data backup and recovery technologies of the future will have not only a cloud focus, but a multi-cloud focus. Make the most of the hyper-converged cloud Hyper-converged infrastructures are similar to public cloud platforms in the way they use virtualization of resources. Take the open source hyper-converged knowledge challenge If you are considering an open source HCI implementation, this quiz can help you further refine your knowledge and better prepare