Uji kuadrat-chi Pearson

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Tes ieu mimiti dipaluruh ku Karl Pearson. It tests a null hypothesis that the relative frequencies of occurrence of observed events follow a specified frequency distribution. A simple example is the hypothesis that an ordinary six-sided die is "fair", i.

The number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of possible outcomes, minus A chi-square probability of 0. The alternate hypothesis is not rejected when the variables have an associated relationship. If there were 45 men in the sample and 55 women, then. If the null hypothesis is true i. Alternatively, if the male count is known the female count is determined, and vice-versa.

Consultation of the chi-square distribution for 1 degree of freedom shows that the probability of observing this difference or a more extreme difference than this if men and women are equally numerous in the population is approximately 0.

This probability is higher than conventional criteria for statistical significanceso normally apa itu uji binomial would not reject the null hypothesis that the number of men in the population is the same as the number of women. Where there is only 1 degree of freedom, the approximation is not reliable if expected frequencies are below In cases where the expected value, E, is found to be small indicating either a small underlying population probability, or a small number of observationsthe normal approximation of the multinomial distribution can fail, and in such cases it is found to be more appropriate to use the G-testa likelihood ratio -based test statistic.

Where the total sample size is small, it is necessary to use an appropriate exact test, typically either the binomial test apa itu uji binomial for contingency tables Fisher's exact test ; but note that this test assumes fixed and known marginal totals. This approximation arises as the true distribution, under the null hypothesis, if the expected value is given by a multinomial distribution.

For apa itu uji binomial sample sizes, the central limit theorem says this distribution tends toward a certain multivariate normal distribution. In the special case where there are only two cells in the table, the expected apa itu uji binomial follow a binomial distribution. In the above example the hypothesised probability of a male observation is 0. Thus we expect to observe 50 males. Let O 1 be the number of observations from apa itu uji binomial sample that are in the first cell.

By the normal approximation to a binomial this is the square of one standard normal variate, and hence is distributed as chi-square with 1 degree of freedom.

Note that the denominator is one standard deviation of the Gaussian approximation, so can be written. For instance we may wish to test whether some data follows a normal distribution but without specifying a mean or variance. Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris.

Bantosanna diantos kanggo narjamahkeun. The number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of possible outcomes, minus apa itu uji binomial Retrieved 21 March Dicomot ti " https: Artikel perlu ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris Statistika.

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