COUNTRIES AND JURISDICTIONS

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Hundreds of billions of dollars of trades by U. The vanishing of the trades was little noted outside a circle of specialists. But the implications were big. The missing transactions reflected an effort by some of the largest U. Those affiliates remain largely best financial derivative trading provider 2010 the jurisdiction of U.

The products affected by that loophole include some of the most widely traded financial derivatives in the world — such as interest best financial derivative trading provider 2010 swaps, where a bank takes a fee for exchanging a variable-rate interest payment for a fixed rate with a client, and credit default swaps, a sort of insurance where one party, often a bank, agrees to pay another party in the event of a bond default.

For large investors, the products are an important tool to hedge risk. But in times of crisis, they can turn toxic. Insome of these instruments helped topple major financial institutions, crashing the U. After the crisis, Congress and regulators sought to rein in this risk, and the banks fought back.

Goldman Sachs attended at least of those meetings. Many of the CFTC employees who were lobbied in these meetings went on to work for banks. Of those 50 staffers, at least 25 now work for the big five or other top swaps-dealing banks, or for best financial derivative trading provider 2010 firms and lobbyists representing these banks. After that rule passed, U.

By December ofcertain U. While many swaps trades are now booked abroad, some people in the markets believe the risk remains firmly on U. To be sure, some post-crisis regulations have reduced certain kinds of risk-taking by major institutions, regulators and lawmakers say.

Other regulators, such as the Federal Reserve, have jurisdiction over U. And the top five top banks account for 92 percent of that. Lawmakers were doing an about-face: InCongress had passed a law barring the regulation of derivatives. But times had changed. Those barely regulated products, including certain types of swaps, brought many giant financial institutions to their knees. The Dodd-Frank Act required better reporting and record keeping to keep tabs on risk, and it implemented trading rules aimed at minimizing the chance that a collapsing bank would bring down others.

The most commonly used swaps were required to be traded on an electronic exchange open to all buyers and sellers, much like the stock market is today. That is what we advocated for then and continue to do so now. Fees would fall — and most important to regulators worried about another meltdown, risk would be dispersed among more institutions.

The son of a cigarette and pinball-machine salesman in working class Baltimore, Gensler, at 30, had become the youngest banker ever to make partner at Goldman Sachs. Later, as an undersecretary of the Treasury, Gensler helped push through the law that had banned regulation of derivatives markets. At Goldman, he had seen how U. That practice — known as regulatory arbitrage — had a history of landing the economy in trouble.

AIG, a Connecticut-based insurance giant, buckled in under trades made by its office in London. Insoon after Gensler took the job, Congress was hashing out the Dodd-Frank bill. A powerful Republican congressman, Rep. Alarmed, the Democratic co-sponsor of the bill, Rep. Barney Frank, asked Gensler to craft a counter-proposal. Gensler and his staff tucked a word insert into a page amendment to the Dodd-Frank bill.

But the insert was craftily worded to leave wiggle room. A coalition of 13 global banks banded together to fight the clause. They hired Edward J. The debate that ensued became one of the most contentious chapters of the post-crisis regulatory battle.

Senate lobbying records provided to the Center for Responsive Politics. On weekly conference calls, Rosen and the banks hashed out strategy to shape the best financial derivative trading provider 2010 rules.

Goldman Sachs Managing Director R. Martin Chavez put it more bluntly in an August letter to the Commission. In latebanks caught a break. Michael Dunn, the third Democrat on the five-person commission, stepped down.

Gensler and other pro-reform allies assumed that the veteran Democrat would vote with the Democrats on the commission. Wetjen, a derivatives newcomer, was not a conventional liberal. He came with an endorsement from the U. Chamber of Commerce, best financial derivative trading provider 2010 opponent of the Dodd-Frank Act. As his policy adviser, Wetjen hired Scott Reinhart, former in-house counsel at the structured credit products division at Lehman Brothers — the bank whose collapse in set off the financial crisis.

InGensler had met with the top five U. That was still more than any other staffer or commissioner at the CFTC. Wetjen himself met with the top banks second-most often, 34 times. Gensler met them less than half as frequently, as did nearly every other commissioner and staffer, according to the records. Bankers say Wetjen gave them a fairer hearing than Gensler.

They turned to a footnote in an early draft of the policy dealing with cross-border regulation. Therefore, the rules should apply only to overseas branches, and not to overseas affiliates.

Gensler shot that argument down. The banks then zeroed in on wording in best financial derivative trading provider 2010 first policy draft giving U. And so the passage seemed to Gensler a good way of capturing all global swaps trading carried out by U. On a call with bank officials inRosen, the lobbyist, wondered aloud to best financial derivative trading provider 2010 clients: Rosen told Reuters that the idea of best financial derivative trading provider 2010 only came up after the CFTC issued its final policy guidance.

Goldman had already started moving to restructure its trading operations to get around Dodd-Frank. In Marchit sent out a four-page letter to its derivatives clients with an unusual demand. With each shift, the trade could fall under different regulators. That was a big change. Swaps contracts often run for years, with each party committed to paying the other regularly, according to fluctuations in interest rates or some other benchmark. Gensler stepped down from the CFTC at the end of Soon after Gensler left, other U.

They pressed clients to strip guarantees from hundreds of thousands of swaps contracts. Most went along, say lawyers and investors familiar with the effort. The global inter-dealer market for interest rate swaps in Euros is one of the largest derivatives markets in the world. The data were misleading. But their trades, booked through London affiliates, without any credit guarantees linking them back to the U. Executives from several large U. That would cause U.

International clients also threatened to take their business to non-U. Some investors balked at signing the new contracts. But premiums paid by clients were largely unaffected, say investors asked to sign the best financial derivative trading provider 2010 contracts.

This fund agreed to sign rather than jeopardize its relationship. By mid, the five biggest U. In midthe Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association, a banking lobby in Washington, circulated a private memo to its members. The memo consisted of talking points banks could use to justify the de-guaranteed contracts and shifting of trades if questioned by regulators and lawmakers. A spokesman for Bank of America, William P. In earlythe CFTC began fielding reports that banks were using the guarantee loophole to move trades abroad.

This June, Massad announced a proposal that would force U. Vanishing Act More in this series. By Charles Levinson Filed Aug. The Democratic co-sponsors of the landmark bill, Sen. Christopher Dodd and Rep. Barney Frank, at the signing ceremony in July It was later invoked by the CFTC in an attempt to assert control over best financial derivative trading provider 2010 very operations.

Though a Democrat, he generally sided with banks in the rules battle, alienating Chairman Gensler. An earlier version of this table incorrectly said she remains at the CFTC. By AugustU. But the guarantee loophole remains, as does the uncertainty that comes with it. Additional reporting by Michael Erman.

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