## Digital Signal

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Electrical signals are everywhere, since they are used in communications, in entertainment devices, in measuring instruments, in imaging devices, in control systems, and in computers.

Such signals are of two types: The traditional telephone uses analog signals, since the continuously varying pressure associated with sound waves is converted into continuously varying voltages of an electrical signal. Computers, by contrast, usually deal with so-called binary signals, sequences of zeros and ones. A historical trend of the last half-century is the replacement of analog signals by digital signals.

For example, music was always recorded and transmitted in analog form binary vs digital signaling processing the s when the CD player made digital recording of music common. When binary vs digital signaling processing CD is made in the studio, the music binary vs digital signaling processing first converted into an electrical analog signal by a microphonebut then the electrical signal is converted into a sequence of zeros and ones by sampling measuring the intensity of the sound at specific points in time, many thousands of times a second and quantizing assigning each intensity to one of a finite number of intensity levels.

It is this sequence of zeros and ones that is etched into the spiral track of the CD. There are two very important advantages to digital signals. First, digital signals can be reproduced exactly. All you have to do is be sure that a zero doesn't get turned into a one or vice versa.

Binary vs digital signaling processing can do this by making the physical signals for zero and one quite different, and also by building in redundancy, so that even if a zero occasionally gets turned into a one the error is automatically corrected.

Second, digital signals can be manipulated easily. Since the signal is just a sequence of zeros and ones, and since a computer can do anything specifiable to such a sequence, you can do a great many things with digital signals.

And what you are doing is called digital signal processing. So what is it you might do with the signals? One thing you can do is filter out unwanted parts of the signal, such as noise. Another thing you can do is combine several signals into one; this is called multiplexing.

Yet another thing you can do is build in error detection and error correction; you make the signal longer in such a way that any distortion of the signal during transmission binary vs digital signaling processing recording can be detected and corrected.

You can also compress the signal, binary vs digital signaling processing that it can be transmitted more rapidly. Another thing you can do is enhance certain parts of a signal to make it easier to use.

For example, the drought-affected regions of a continent can be given a different color in a satellite image. All these things—and many more—are digital signal processing. It was in the s that a discipline of digital signal processing began to form. At that time digital signals were becoming more common, and advances in microelectronics the ability to build extremely trading account digital binary option broker migescontact circuits in a very small space made it possible to carry out some of the tasks mentioned above.

Today digital signal processing is a major branch of engineering. Retrieved from " http: Signals Signal processing Digital signal processing Consumer electronics Energy.

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A digital signal is a signal that is being used to represent data as a sequence of discrete values; at any given time it can only take on one of a finite number of values. Simple digital signals represent information in discrete bands of analog levels.

All levels within a band of values represent the same information state. In most digital circuits , the signal can have two possible values; this is called a binary signal or logic signal. These correspond to the two values "zero" and "one" or "false" and "true" of the Boolean domain , so at any given time a binary signal represents one binary digit bit.

Because of this discretization , relatively small changes to the analog signal levels do not leave the discrete envelope, and as a result are ignored by signal state sensing circuitry. As a result, digital signals have noise immunity ; electronic noise , provided it is not too great, will not affect digital circuits, whereas noise always degrades the operation of analog signals to some degree.

Digital signals having more than two states are occasionally used; circuitry using such signals is called multivalued logic. For example, signals that can assume three possible states are called three-valued logic. In a digital signal, the physical quantity representing the information may be a variable electric current or voltage, the intensity, phase or polarization of an optical or other electromagnetic field , acoustic pressure, the magnetization of a magnetic storage media, etcetera.

Digital signals are used in all digital electronics , notably computing equipment and data transmission. In digital electronics a digital signal is a pulse train a pulse amplitude modulated signal , i. In digital signal processing , a digital signal is a representation of a physical signal that is a sampled and quantized. A digital signal is an abstraction which is discrete in time and amplitude.

The signal's value only exists at regular time intervals, since only the values of the corresponding physical signal at those sampled moments are significant for further digital processing. The digital signal is a sequence of codes drawn from a finite set of values. In digital communications , a digital signal is a continuous-time physical signal, alternating between a discrete number of waveforms, [3] representing a bit stream message.

The shape of the waveform depends the transmission scheme, which may be either:. In communications, sources of interference are usually present, and noise is frequently a significant problem. The effects of interference are typically minimized by filtering off interfering signals as much as possible and by using data redundancy. The main advantages of digital signals for communications are often considered to be the immunity to noise that it may be possible to provide, and the ability, in many cases such as with audio and video data, to use data compression to greatly decrease the bandwidth that is required on the communication media.

In computer architecture and other digital systems, a waveform that switches between two voltage levels or less commonly, other waveforms representing the two states of a Boolean value 0 and 1, or Low and High, or false and true is referred to as a digital signal or logic signal or binary signal when it is interpreted in terms of only two possible digits.

The clock signal is a special digital signal that is used to synchronize many digital circuits. The image shown can be considered the waveform of a clock signal. Logic changes are triggered either by the rising edge or the falling edge. The given diagram is an example of the practical pulse and therefore we have introduced two new terms that are:. Although in a highly simplified and idealized model of a digital circuit we may wish for these transitions to occur instantaneously, no real world circuit is purely resistive and therefore no circuit can instantly change voltage levels.

This means that during a short, finite transition time the output may not properly reflect the input, and will not correspond to either a logically high or low voltage. The two states of a wire are usually represented by some measurement of an electrical property: Voltage is the most common, but current is used in some logic families.

A threshold is designed for each logic family. When below that threshold, the signal is low , when above high. To create a digital signal, an analog signal must be modulated with a control signal to produce it. As we have already seen, the simplest modulation, a type of unipolar line coding is simply to switch on and off a DC signal, so that high voltages are a '1' and low voltages are '0'. In digital radio schemes one or more carrier waves are amplitude or frequency or phase modulated with a signal to produce a digital signal suitable for transmission.

In Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line over telephone wires , ADSL does not primarily use binary logic; the digital signals for individual carriers are modulated with different valued logics, depending on the Shannon capacity of the individual channel. Often digital signals are "sampled" by a clock signal at regular intervals by passing the signal through an "edge sensitive" flip-flop.

When this is done the input is measured at those points in time, and the signal from that time is passed through to the output and the output is then held steady till the next clock.

This process is the basis of synchronous logic , and the system is also used in digital signal processing. However, asynchronous logic also exists, which uses no single clock, and generally operates more quickly, and may use less power, but is significantly harder to design.